Dostoevsky’s novel “Crime and Punishment” – one of the most complex works not only in the work of the writer, but also in Russian literature as a whole. Today, when a strong habit of watching the film adaptation of the books “based on the” read “diagonally”, difficult to master volume novel, to see his deepest meaning, to follow the complicated, despite the sharp detective story, the action. However, if carefully get a grasp of the product, one can understand that everything in it is subject to the disclosure of the greatest humanist ideas of the author.
In “Crime and Punishment” reflected a difficult time – 60 years of XIX century. Advanced age people believed that a strong personality, bright and outstanding, could stand above society. Dostoevsky showed fermentation of minds, the search of his “I” and, because of this, the creation of theories opposes human world around him. Ideas Raskolnikov and Luzhin Svidrigailov vital position – not fiction author, but existing views. Economic theory Luzhin almost completely coincides with the theory of rational egoism Chernyshevskogo. In addition, Raskolnikov has a real prototype – a person who commits a crime not because of money, and under the influence of his ideas.
For the third quarter of the XIX century is characterized by a departure of man from God. People could not find an explanation terrible sins and atrocities happening on the ground. However, according to Dostoevsky, a man chooses his own way. God can only show him the way, sent by her.
It is these two lines: debunking theories that put one man above others, and approval of the priority of Christian precepts and morals – the main in the novel. Moreover, they are subject to approval by the plot, imagery system, and the product composition. The plot of the novel is a real fact – the murder committed by a young person under the influence of their ideas. The essence of the novel is the psychological analysis of the crime and its moral consequences. However “Crime and Punishment” – social and philosophical work, so the author tries to reveal and vices of society, pushing the person on a crime.
The hero, an intelligent and honest man, sees very injustice of the world, sees that some, worthless and stupid, live in magnificent mansions on the banks of the Neva River, in the summer enjoy the cool Vasilevsky Island, and others, fair, smart, sensitive, forced to live in barracks at the Haymarket, in the summer of choking from the stench and the stink of the main shopping area of St. Petersburg. In addition, he understands that people are divided into two camps: the “lower” and “higher” to “loathsome creature” and “the right to have a kill well. Dividing this does not happen on the material, but on moral grounds: “… who is strong and strong in mind and spirit, that … and the lord!”. Hero recognizes the right of a person to be superior to others, to judge, punish or pardon for any reason. He does not believe in God and believe that a person can be the judge. The main thing that is opposed to Raskolnikov’s theory – it’s true Sony Marmeladova her position in life.
Image Sony – one of the most important in the novel, it embodied the Dostoyevsky his idea “man of God”. Sonia lives according to Christian precepts. Placed in the same difficult conditions of existence, and that Raskolnikov, it has retained a living soul, and the necessary link with the world, which broke the protagonist, who committed the worst sin – murder. Sonia refuses to judge anyone, accept the world as it is. Her credo: “And who put me here judge: who will live, who do not live?”. It is associated with Sonia Raskolnikov path, the path of repentance and resurrection.
For a complete debunking, the idea of Raskolnikov Dostoevsky uses a technique that is widely used in Russian literature: the hero enters the twins. It Luzhin and Svidrigailov. Economic theory Luzhin seemingly has nothing to do with the ideas of Raskolnikov, but they are based on the same idea: one-man stands above the rest of the people, universal laws are not for him. And Luzhin, Raskolnikov and allow the shedding of blood, but if Raskolnikov can kill for the future, for the good of thousands of people, that Luzhin allow the shedding of blood for the sake of personal gain. Svidrigailov lives on the principle of permissiveness. He believes that not all the moral foundations of society are made for it. That is why the crime trail runs behind him. It is thanks Luzhin and Svidrigailov we can understand what can transform the idea of Raskolnikov, how much evil it carries.
The composition of the novel is also subject to debunking the theory of the hero. Only one of the six is devoted to crime, the other five – punishment. Nevertheless, this is not a physical but a moral punishment. Justice is accomplished only at the end of the sixth and in the epilogue.
The composition associated with the penetration of the Christian faith in the soul of Raskolnikov. Three times in the story sounds parable of the resurrection of Lazarus. The first time Porfiry Petrovich Rodion asked whether he believed in the resurrection, the second – it reads Sonia, the third – in the epilogue. Therefore, Dostoevsky shows the possibility of moral resurrection through excruciatingly long road of repentance. It is no accident Sonia reads to Raskolnikov parable in the fourth chapter of the fourth part of the novel. This figure takes on a symbolic meaning: it is after four days, Lazarus was resurrected.
A huge role in the novel plays an epilogue. It Dostoevsky shows in his understanding of the Apocalypse. People overcome with pride, a world that is falling apart. Faith alone can save the world.
More than a century separates us from the events described in the novel. It may seem that we are very far from that time. However, today, when destroyed the old laws, norms of behavior, and new ones have not been created, a person can go (and is) a crime in the name of power over people. The novel “Crime and Punishment” is intended to prevent the recurrence of past mistakes.